Photo: Thinkstock

Photo: Thinkstock

Nose "stuffy", itching and runny ... These are typical signs of rhinitis - a problem that can affect men and women of any age and race.

Currently, rhinitis is considered one of the most common chronic diseases in the world. Nevertheless, there is still much doubt about the matter. For example, many people do not know what are the differences between rhinitis and sinusitis, do not know how the disease is treated or how to avoid a crisis.

Thinking about it, below you know all the information about the rhinitis to clarify once their possible questions!

What is rhinitis?

Pinheiro Mario Esposito, PhD in Otolaryngology and professor of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Cuiabá (MT), explains that rhinitis is an acute inflammatory disease or chronic nasal mucosa.

Alexandre de Souza Cury, ENT specialist, Master of Molecular Biology and Professor of Medicine at the University Anhanguera Uniderp, points out that this inflammation of the nose tissues and nearby structures is due to exposure to a pathogen, for example, in allergic rhinitis there is exposure to an allergen.

"Rhinitis is considered one of the most common chronic diseases in the world today," adds Alexandre Cury. Also according to the Cury otolaryngologist, rhinitis is a disease that affects all ages. "For example, allergic rhinitis has a peak incidence in childhood and adolescence. Today, in Brazil, in the range of 6-7 years, it affects about 25% of children and almost 30% of adolescents between 13 and 14 years, "he says.

What types of rhinitis?

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Photo: Thinkstock

Alexandre Cury points out that, more generally, can be divided between rhinitis:

  1. Allergic (rhinitis of infectious origin, which may be viral, bacterial and fungal);
  2. Non-infectious (rhinitis which can be irritating, occupational, pharmacological, hormonal, pregnancy, elderly, athlete, taste, etc.).

The teacher Mário Espósito talks about the characteristics of some types of rhinitis best known:

Allergic rhinitis: It is triggered by allergens such as dust mites, dust, fungi (molds), the dog and cat.

drug rhinitis: occurs due to the use of drugs, especially topical decongestants (drops that drip nose) for long periods and most of the time without medical advice.

Infectious Rhinitis: They are usually caused by colds and flu, that are self-limiting lasting 7 to 10 days and, in some cases, treated with symptomatic drugs (decongestants, analgesics and anti-inflammatory).

vasomotor rhinitis: It occurs by weather or temperature changes.

What causes the problem?

Just as there are different types of rhinitis, there are several causes of this inflammation in the tissues of the nose and nearby structures.

Mário Espósito rhinitis stresses that can be caused by both bacteria and by viruses, although most often manifested as a result of allergy or reactions to dust, smoke and other environmental agents.

Alexandre Cury explains that in the case of allergic rhinitis, have been allergens (dust mites, pollen, animal hair) as causative factors. In the drug rhinitis, has been prolonged use of nasal vasoconstrictor topics. "In occupational rhinitis, have the annoying present in the workplace," he adds.

Symptoms of rhinitis

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Photo: Thinkstock

The otolaryngologist Cury points out that the main symptoms of rhinitis are:

  • Nasal obstruction
  • sneezing
  • nasal pruritus (itchy nose)
  • Rhinorrhea (nasal discharge liquid)

Dr. Mario ENT Esposito explains that inflammation resulting from rhinitis result in excessive mucus production, generated by the accumulation of histamine, which causes nasal bleeding - most typical symptoms of rhinitis. "You can still occur nasal obstruction, sneezing, decreased sense of smell, itching and irritation in the nose," he adds.

How it is diagnosed

Alexandre Cury points out that to diagnose rhinitis otorhinolaryngologists is based on a good medical history with the patient and in a proper physical examination.

Mário Espósito adds that sometimes may need additional tests such as nasal endoscopy, x-rays and CT scans of the face, allergy tests, serum IgE levels and specific rhinomanometry, nasal secretion cytology.

Is there a treatment for rhinitis?

The teacher Mário Espósito explains that the treatment of rhinitis should include environmental hygiene and the use of medications (decongestants, mucolytics, antihistamines, nasal saline, nasal corticosteroids). "And in the case of allergic rhinitis may be necessary to use vaccines (immunotherapy)," he adds.

How to prevent rhinitis crisis?

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Photo: Thinkstock

One must always avoid the substances that trigger rhinitis crisis, as the pollutants and chemicals.

"You must know that the most important role in the treatment of rhinitis is the patient and sometimes small steps bring great results," said Mário Espósito. In this sense, it guides it is fundamental:

  • Avoiding house dust and mites;
  • Avoid agents and irritants.

To prevent dust and fungi, Esposito guides:

  • Remove anything that can collect dust in your home;
  • Carpets, thick curtains are lodging places for mites and dust;
  • Smooth floors are much easier to clean and do not harbor dust mites;
  • fine and small rugs, which may be washed, are more practical and less harmful;
  • light curtains, which can be washed are ideal;
  • Always pass a damp cloth over the furniture and the floor, if possible, every day;
  • Let the environment always open to air them and the sun's rays enter as long as possible.

X rhinitis sinusitis

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Photo: Thinkstock

Mário Espósito explains that rhinitis is an inflammation of the nose structure, which causes symptoms such as stuffy nose, runny nose, sneezing and itchy nose. "And sinusitis is inflammation of the sinuses," he says.

Also according to the doctor ENT Esposito, sinusitis can be acute when symptoms last for weeks, or chronic when symptoms are daily.

"But beyond the classic signs - stuffy nose, facial congestion, fever, headache, yellowish phlegm, cough and changes in smell - if not treated, the disease, especially acute, can also lead to more serious complications. If the pus reach the eyes, for example, they may swell, leaving the red and irritated eyelids. Other than that, the secretion can still reach the brain, causing brain abscess, encephalitis and meningitis, "he said.

Vale strengthen both rhinitis and sinusitis should be treated in accordance with medical advice to avoid complications. And that small measures to prevent, for example, removing all dust gathering in your home, always pass a damp cloth over the furniture and the floor etc., offer great results!